tv Doc Film - The Germans - Bismarck and the German Empire Deutsche Welle June 18, 2018 5:15pm-6:00pm CEST
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for most of the second min the n.e.m.a. dean central europe is divided into a patchwork of states. it takes centuries for its people to start to see themselves as german. what is the history of who flock. to questions about a thousand years of german history. would. be . good to. am and still aren't
unified in one state also fun bismarck will now set about changing that not with parliaments but as he says with blood and sand. an empire imposed from above unity at the price of freedom. the air . it's not a question he asks himself fatima and co and blynde is a twenty two year old student from southern germany and he's in berlin for one reason only. he wants to prevent the impending war in which there are germans on both sides a war between brothers. the enthusiast
take patriot feels that those responsible for the threat of civil war are traitors to germany. in order to maintain peace cohen bill and sees only one solution he has to remove the man who most genom see as the driving force behind the looming conflict. and that is the prussian prime minister otto fun bismarck. he's fighting to the power of the crown of a parliament and democracy in prussia he is considered a reactionary of the first order. to the outside world he wants to unite the many german states under prussian rule not just out of a national feeling of german less but as many believe out of oppression the power. is moscow the major questions in history also with bennett's not with words.
that now turns against him. this mock study in free to a school near hamburg the memory of the attempted assassination still hangs in the air here one of the items in bismarck's s date was the perpetrators pistol. it's a firearm that could have changed the course of history. as the donned bullet holes revealed bismarck was hit several times but is the clothing that day dampened the impact and the guns firepower was to wreak.
bismarck only suffered burns in what would have happened if the assassination attempt had succeeded. the bisque had bismarck fallen victim to an assassination in eight hundred sixty six and there definitely wouldn't have been war in the way there was nobody in germany wanted the inner german war. but this not done so he kept the weapon of his attacker who committed suicide in prison till the day he died. he sees his salvation as a divine nod to launch the decisive battle for germany now. germany at this time is made up of more than thirty independent states that have come together in the german confederation the major powers austria and prussia i have to say but when prussia seeks to seize control of the duchess of schleswig and against austria's
wishes the argument becomes a test of strength who asked the same in germany austria opp russia. the decision is made in the free city of frankfurt. the city where german and pres were once elected is now the seat of the german confederation whose purpose is to secure peace among the german states and provide shared x. tunnel security. not far from the cathedral in the turin and taxes palace the confederate diet the confederation's decision making body meets a month after the assassination attempt the mission on the agenda is austria's request to mobilize against prussia on the grounds that the occupation of the dutch is that she says make and host time is illegal. all eyes turn to him depression delegate call fleet a sponsor the know what instructions has he received from this mock the delegate
from austria is chairing money to such levels vote in the name of his majesty the emperor of austria i vote yes to the motion. and i was a delegate from russia has the floor to questions does not. mean nothing david you will rise in the name of the pression government i vehemently protest against this vote which is undoubtedly in the violation of confederate long haul this border states stuff that. this is something that will be and we register this protest next like all the princes don't want a german confederation dominated by prussia words i'm. in favor with nine votes to six the austrian motion to mobilize the army of the german confederation against prussia is accepted in arms i am i just in the name of his majesty the king of prussia i inform you that precious sees this vote as
a declaration of war it is optional i just keep saying feel there are shouts of outrageous from the who. want signs and secondly for prussia this vote a null for the confederation treaty stage. if we just hear. from dr friedman my king's orders i declare my participation in this assembly to be. over. addictions of the german confederation ended in eight hundred sixty six sixty seven because the states did precisely what it was intended to prevent namely wage war against each other instead of the sky but the majority of the states were on the austrian side and prussia was seen as the bad guy who was violating this german confederation. so they join forces against prussia to wage give.
the war starts just one day after the vote in frankfurt and it's decided at the beginning of july near kearney gets in the modern day czech republic but in those days in austria and bohemia. bismarck has put his hopes in this man the pression chief of staff hellmuth fung mud his plan is for the pression forces to move separately but strung together. he has divided the prussians forces into three alma's they make faster progress separately but they can only win as one the third on and falls behind only if it arrives in time for the battle can melt because plan succeed. the third army approaches as fast as it can. be treated as the battlefield at around noon just in time.
the austrian northern frank is overrun. the austrians and their allies have no choice if they want to avoid being surrounded they have to hold the prussians without counterattack. wow i and the attack launched by the austrian reserves is a turning point in the battle of the prussians can now play their trump card the pression needle gun the first breach loading far on to function properly the ammunition is loaded at the back rather than being pushed down the muzzle when the trigger is pulled a firing pin pierces the cartridge and ignites the charge that propels the bullet
forwards. it gives the prussians a deadly advantage over the austrians plus still armed with muzzle loaders. depression's can reload more quickly and also while lying down the soldiers can remain in cover. the air the upstream counterattack collapses in a rapid fire from the passion needle guns thousands die in around half an hour their deaths decide the battle. the austrian army and its allies only narrowly escaped complete destruction by the end of the day around fifteen thousand austrians are either dead or missing the prussians only lose around two thousand men.
for their wounded on both sides the war is over but not their fear of death the red cross has only been in existence to two years it tries to deal with the suffering on the battlefield as best it can. the battle of clinic that stays sides the war. austria is defeated the government in vienna has no choice it sends a piece offered to the pression headquarters at nicole's book palace austria office prussia immediate peace and a free hand in the german confederation the only condition is that austria will cede no territory whatsoever. bismarck is prepared to accept that but is keeping their house in the past of prussia isn't home for sure i mean the question not me
is winning do you expect me to have them stop them before they reach vienna. fourteen to one viens on how can i say. we've achieved our goal your majesty every further day comes with the danger that austria receives help we must make peace now on scene nonsense we must be able to say and prussia that we heard austria and that we punished it like taking some of its possessions was of at least some of austria must be ours being there are several options for example a piece of austria could become german but he mia so mushroom kuntar and tired it was did i use george goods are quite impossible your majesty austrians alisha's impossible to know rabiah your majesty impossible impossible. i'll tell you what's impossible he just by your attitude as you. processed policies are still make by the king. from could human. so you may
go. there ma truncheon dr wilhelm simply thought if we win a war we must make territorial gains as you play must experience a tangible triumph bismarck thought far beyond that he wanted to go gentle on austria so they would have a partner in the future tense time. bismarck reacts to the king's resistance with fury he remembers it even decades later. he finally gives the monica choice if their home too says to reject me and his office he will resign. only now does the king given austria keeps its territory and quickly makes peace
with the victor and prussia has achieved its goal the battle for dominance in germany has been decided the way bismarck intended. me to have an after the decision of eight hundred sixty six made it clear that germany and austria would go their separate ways as contemporaries saw this as grotesque austria had been part of germany for centuries but now the decision was made to form the german empire without austria from eight hundred sixty six onwards austria's and germany's paths would separate and. and it was auto fun bismarck who separated them the victoria of austria gives the villain the last laugh his passion fatherland feels his victory is worth a monument the victory column and berlin. to this day it's the central symbol of bismarck's unification of germany a bronze relief at its base depicts the battle of canny cadets in the middle the
gilded barrels of captured enemy cannon. and at the top a goddess of victory wearing the prussians eco helmet a symbol of triumph set in stone victorious prussia now rules in germany not austria itself survives prussia simply an excess states such as the kingdom of hanover that supported fianna fáil joining forces with others to form the north german confederation but a town extends to the river mind because of a french veto southern germany remains independent from ties foggy grounds was against german unification for purely power political reasons it was a primary power on the continent and felt it would be dangerous to a lot of prussia which was. rising rapidly to triumph again and doesn't last motley a few today and the french side wanted to keep the german side and russia in particular in check. in french knife and poison for i mean and. it isn't
just france that wants to keep pressure on to control many people in southern germany especially in the varia and the earth and that want to maintain that old independence and that's especially true for the rulers it's only a nudge from the outside that gets things going again. it stands in seek matting and in swabian this is the home of the princes of hohenzollern a branch of the prussians royal house. in eight hundred seventy the spanish off of the prince's eldest son. the spanish crown nail polled hesitates but then accents but not entirely of his own volition as letters from bismarck in zeke manning and the state archive prove. now polled only agrees under pressure from bismarck bismarck knows that the french
and printed poleon the third is against a member of the house of poland solomon on the spanish throne because he fears any further increase in the balance of power but bismarck thinks a conflict with france is almost unavoidable if he wants to unify germany's north and south this not use his name appalled to deliberately provoke the french is going on the question is this is the solution of eight hundred sixty six permanent always at a stop gap on the way to a german empire in bismarck's view and it's probably irrefutable war with france is inevitable if he wants to achieve this increasing for. news of live holds acquiescence along as the french foreign minister the duke did come on the hohenzollern prints on the spanish throne. it is irreconcilable with france's power and the prestige of its ruler emperor napoleon the third. my own
majesty. so it's true leopold has been visions to be killed largely due to fear. see him. silently if russia has another triumph the french won't be demanding bismarck's head anymore they'll want yours. but what do you suggest be a part of the brushing king muscle publicly and permanently result leopold kind of a see saw me. and is looking eventually accept such a humiliations i'm fucking mean. you have a will to otherwise will force him to. the man who's going to be forced is currently in bad ends to take the waters it's
here that the king their help he has about the french protest and acts as mediator with his consent they are polled with towards his candidacy france has one conflict seems to have been avoided that's a mistake blair polled withdrawal isn't enough for the french empire he wants to see prussia humiliated. there's just a little but it's a dispatch from the king and we cannot delay. it seems the french ambassador benedetti visited him personally and bought ever so this morning in paris. they are states that king's message to bismarck says that benedetti has demanded a public guarantee that no one from the house opponents fallen would ascend the spanish throne it was a huge affront could he said ok the shouldn't have spoken to him leopold with and that was enough that discussed the king has clearly realized his mistake he sent
his secretary to clarify that he's not able or willing to do more. resign him or use his majesty informs you that live gold withdrawal has been confirmed to him from seek marring and and he has nothing further to convey to the ambassador of. the us that says wait everything's not lost yet. the event and he will shorten the message a little vala. enough he will cut the bit about sigma adding an orange and just say the king has nothing further to convey to the ambassador it's time period.
axel and not gives it quite a different turn. as if the king has slammed the door in his face a situation like that. when he says that if i pass this on to the papers paris will hear about it before midnight let's wait and see how france reacts this month plan a successful napoleon takes the publication of the so-called emmys telegram as a slap in the face the man who wanted to humiliate prussia has now been humiliated himself he acts just as bismarck expects fronts to class war on prussia upolu young is senegal his hold on france is weakening and he can't afford a defeat bismarck knows that he can't just say we'll let it go as a major power like france has to respond and call smushed the fog and so france and prussia those on the offensive and they clash in ziva funk ice of your friends if applies to both sides are to blame for the conflict but bismarck has
a crucial advantage because france was the one to declare war it is seen as the aggressor. in munich and all over southern germany even prussia's rivals now want to join the north german confederation against france. the public mood leaves southern germany is ruled has no choice to make the second the king of bavaria also orders the mobilization of his army against phones. in bavaria and all across germany the people willingly heed the call to arms craftsman teachers workers fallen laborers even teenagers the youngest volunteer is just fifteen and comes from the various. the war against fonts unites the germans. once again marcus surprises the enemy by rapidly deploying his forces.
part of the french troops is cut off. the city of metz the polian the third rushes from shall long to metz to liberate the city the two sides meet in battle in a sit down. in the poland's forces are in a bad state difficult to march's indecisive leadership and logistical problems have sapped them are all. pm for grants his soldiers a day of rest on the first of september it was a fatal error. it gives the german forces time to surround the french troops. at least they're caught in a mouse trap says most. this time the field marshal doesn't just bank on his rifles instead he turns to his artillery his
plan is to use heavy artillery from the crook factories to decide the a c. of. s. . in that improvised positions the french are at the mercy of german firepower they have almost no protection. three volleys per minute up to eight hundred on just this day the french army falls apart on to the bar off from the german artillery. regiments battalions and even companies disintegrate. the battle of say done is later romanticized as a german national legend. napoleon
the third admits defeat in the afternoon of the cast of september he has a white flag why stayed above one of the ports gates. just the battle of sudan is an incredible military success basically the french empire has been defeated on the battlefield bt ilish plenty but on another level it is also a very emotional uplifting feeling for the majority of germans on this day at sedan the power that stood in the way of the germans for so long was defeated the fact your team so she deceived follows the doj leadership. napoleon that one hundred thousand french soldiers are captured the deposed emperor of the french dies in exile in england three years later in paris news of the defeat sparks of rebellion
the empire has collapsed. but the war still goes on and the french capital is besieged by german troops and is bombarded with heavy artillery this was to lead to deep rifts between the french and the germans for decades to come. the siege of paris is directed from nearby their sinai the prefecture in the center of town becomes the royal prussian headquarters. it is also from here that the next steps for german unity opera pen and. the ellis mark intends to use the national euphoria after the victory had sat down to motivate the south german states to join the north german confederation voluntarily
but there's resistance. to overcome this busy. quite so letter to the bavarian king bootlick the second he knows the monarch books at the idea of making his kingdom part of a unified germany which is what the majority of his subjects and his own government want. but he knows the king's weaknesses and plans to exploit them. no dicks fairytale palaces who will pay for them the answer is bismarck with a huge secret donation romantic fantasies in exchange for power. in return the bavarian king writes a letter that does not has drafted and the name of all the german princes he offers vilhelm king of prussia the title of german emperor the end with thirty six letter in his hand bismarck has almost reached his goal the
proclamation of vilhelm as german emperor is to launch the unified german empire. and german unification has been achieved and we have an emperor on deck ties are off. but there's still one man whom he has to convince. all. rusting what does look like think of my ancestors were satisfied with king of prussia either your majesty surely doesn't wish to remain a mere cypher in the new german empire to be just a sort of chairman. patience but if i declare myself willing to become empress i wish to have the title and author of germany definitely not german and comes from star trek i said. i am i use your majesty the princes will never accept an
emperor of germany as they would fear that your majesty might want to rule alone without them all seem. so just in what am i just to be a figurehead the title of german emperor is an exceptional doctor kaiser. is in the tip top. bismarck let him out and bismarck was always of the opinion that you have to use gentle formulations to push through tough policies it wasn't about the title german emperor there were german is an adjective in this sense that emperor of germany would mean i'm the boss of germany i give the orders and that was a different thing entirely fossil he wouldn't have got the south german princes on board as they still had power of their own and he said to us of a snitch that's a become. the palace of the french kings in their side as seventeenth century barrack masterpiece built to glorify the sun king lead the fourteenth during the
siege of paris it is used by the germans. wounded soldiers on nest in the famous hall of mirrors. but on this day they have to move out. in the land of the enemy the germans want to create what the french and the british have long achieved a unified nation. and to be still asked what's the situation what does the king think now. if he still wants to be unprovoked germany has nothing else. nations doesn't he grasp. our situation we're balancing on a knife's edge emperor of germany is impossible he must see that. even shortly before the proclamation the question of the title still hasn't been
solved will the pression king be proclaimed german emperor as bismarck and the princes would like or empress of germany as a bill helm is demanding. it all comes down to him frederick the first grand duke of bogdan he is to proclaim the new emperor. a slave is aligned with his majesty kaiser availabilities. frederick's shrewd phrasing avoids a rumpus in the end they'll helm ged's into bismarck and the princes he becomes the dog. or gentleman and press the end. the end
the moneths resentment is an a temporary he refuses to shake bismarck's hand off to the proclamation but just two months later bestows on him the title of friends the air france capitulate shortly afterwards bismarck has achieved his goal of oppression german nation state germany is unified . must be smug bismarck's empire and eight hundred seventy one is seen and experienced by almost all germans as the culmination of german history for decades it offers what the majority of germans most want national unity and imperial splendor the arms and size the new german empire now also includes southern germany and the former french territories of as us and you know again for its founder bismarck the empire is complete it doesn't need more
territory from now on he wants to secure what has been achieved and preserve peace his return to the lynas triumphal an eyewitness writes what makes anyone deserving of such divine grace as to be allowed to witness such great and powerful things when the victorious ami enters the city through the brandenburg gate on the sixteenth of june eight hundred seventy one is jubilant. the new empath fulfills many of the german people's desire as splenda unity and a degree of co determination. a german parliament representing the entire country is elected in eight hundred seventy one only men over the age of twenty five are allowed to vote at this point politics is still purely for men. the new rice tag for which this building was later constructed decides on the lords and the
budget but it's not parliament that appoints the head of government the chancellor but the empress it's a constitution quite in the spirit of its author. christmas not gave the germans a bit of democracy in that adult man could vote for that i stuck by that went even further than the model liberal monarchy such as great britain and belgium. when i she was battalion but the germans didn't get an accountable government as we get it they give all but he's going to do it she in keizer highish missed. the founding of the empire triggers a rapid economic boom known as the good and the start up years we might say the berlin of the margrave's and kings becomes a modern city the population of the new german capital doubles by nine hundred twelve from a million to more than two million people that makes berlin the fourth largest city
in the world after london new york and paris. the city becomes the symbol of germany's need pinta modernity anything in the way of progress is removed. the engine behind this huge change in the whole country is the first german economic miracle in the first four decades after the empire was founded. jenna's gross domestic product triples the industrial revolution in germany is sprinting ahead by eighteen nine hundred more germans are working in industry than africa for the first time. this economic shift also has a political impact a new self-confident last grows in the tenement blocks of palin and other cities organized labor. it's here that
a new political force recruits its core voters this is actual democrats don't just represent the social interests of the workers but also a new idea of the state they believe monarchy and aristocracy other relics of bygone days the future belongs to the workers bismarck considers these ideas high treason and subversion he believes social democrats are all demagogues. open up in the name of the law. bismarck passes his anti socialist laws to outlaw the party then meetings and newspapers and now illegal anyone who goes against these laws is threatened with fines and prison. take the social democrats away daddy daddy. oh.
you won't be seeing him anytime soon but it's not just social democrats who are facing persecution of the catholic church also comes under fire when not going to come also says bismarck a reference to the submission of an earlier emperor to the pope be smart card i know police mocks politics look for enemies within the empire and that's one of its darkest on city he didn't just have his sights on the workers' movement but also on catholics and increasingly on national minorities within russia and then on the poles poison the pool. is not plays a game of carrot and stick introducing health care accident and pension insurance in quick succession these are milestones on the way to a welfare state but they don't fulfill their intended purpose which is to deprive the social democrats of def honoring. despite the ban on the party itself
individual social democrats are allowed to vote and be elected in one thousand nine hundred one they get six percent of the votes at the high stogie elections by eighty ninety the figure has risen to twenty percent. bismarck's opponents have a majority and a new high stock domestically the chancellor is finished. or his pal and now depends on one man's continuing good health. undervalue the first he has been prussian prime minister for twenty six years and chance left for seventeen years bismarck's power is based on bill helms faith in him under the constitution only the kaiser can find him. it wasn't all. he's easy been and for under a year he's just. your majesty was often harder to convince than the austrians and
even the french guards differentials you now have to be at my grandson's side he has the mental capacity but little experience of being shot. he is the man who will lead the dentist into the future princeville helm and he has very vicious plans princeville helm's own father the crown prince is already terminally ill and will only survive the dying emperor by a few months within a year the ninety year old is succeeded by a twenty nine year old. down the second is unwilling to be an empress and bismarck i'll give the old man six months then all rule myself he arrogantly declare as. long as. at the opening of the heist tog by the new cousin the painter places bismarck in the center one more time but he stands alone isolated the majority and parliament is against him and feel how would prefer to rule alone. in
march one thousand nine hundred bismarck is given his marching orders he never forgives the new cousin for excluding him from power despite only honest vilhelm lavishes on him. a hypocrite. you'll ruin everything. so his government ends as it began fighting with the empire what remains of the empire as found today. bismarck civilians lived bismarck's image remains ambivalent the unified the germans but he also divided them in eight hundred seventy one he led them to the most glorious day in their history but he quickly followed his successful foreign policy with dubious domestic policies look even alston put it he could have half of the even put it for us in the end after his dismissal bismarck withdraws to his
country estate at flea to a school near hand that he will live there for eight more years his departure is seen as an end of an era even outside generally. the air cartoon in the british the terakhir magazine punch dropping the pilot. its foul while to the man who created unity out of opposing forces. this mock was a conservative who created the modern german nation state he achieved outward unification but held internal unity back his successors would gamble away the very end pie he had dealt.
crimes fifth against humanity. civilians become witnesses for. their recorder which is travel around the globe just social media. but what is propaganda fiction and what is fact digital investigators combed through the flood of images they combine sources to try to reconstruct what happened and to substantiate claims of crimes thanks in this video recording of the soldier who shot the young man is on trial now. all forensics between the bits parts. truth detectives starts june thirtieth on t w.
this day dubliners live from above and germany's chancellor survives a rebellion in how governments are going to not go bust. it's crashing with her interior minister of the migration policy will say hoffa has not backed down but he's also given the chance of an ultimatum tighten asylum rules in two weeks will do it myself also on the program. the chief executive of german.